THE PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND TEACHING


Language Learning
Days after days, English becomes more important than we have expected. Every jobs and opportunities are limited with the requirement of English proficiency. The learning that should be covered by the students is not enough to fulfill the world's need, especially at junior and senior high school only.  That means formal education is not quite enough in developing student ability especially in English. It should be supported by informal educational institutions, or non-formal education to maximize the effect on the students itself. 

WHAT IS TEACHING?

Teaching is a process of transferring knowledge, skills and expected behavior set in a well-structured program. And the most important thing is to change the attitude or manner of the students. This is the hardest part for the teacher as the agent of change.
The teacher has varieties of role depending on the situation and the lesson that the teacher teaches. Although in fact the teacher should cover all the roles to manipulate the classroom to be an effective classroom and encourage the students to maximize their ability. 

In the speaking classroom, at least there are three particular relevance roles that a teacher should cover to make the students speak fluently Harmer (2001: 275-276), they are:

a.    Prompter

There are many conditions that could happen in the classroom as the teachers used their method in teaching learning activity. The students lose their words to speak, cannot think any further, do not have any idea that support their arguments, miss pronunciation or some other way losing their fluency. It is clear that the role of teacher as prompter would help the students in their stuck condition in their activity in the classroom. The most important that it could loose the sense of stress that the students may feel when they would face a serious problem in their activity.

b.    Participant
 
The teacher could act as the participant who helps the students inside of the students. It would be a good idea when the teachers are giving their additional information to support the discussion or the role-play of the students has. In that way the teacher could prompt the students covertly, encouraging the students to actively involved in the classroom. However, in some terms, the teachers should not dominate the activity itself which could be drawing all the students’ attention to the teachers.  

c.    Feedback Provider 

Harmer (2001: 276) stated the vexed question of when and how to give feedback in speaking activities is answered by considering carefully the effect of possible different approaches. It reflects that the result of the teaching learning activity is depending on the teacher respond to the varieties activities that students do in the classroom. 
Education Cycle
 WHAT IS LEARNING?

Learning is a process of change from one mental setting into another. In a simple way, it not only makes the people know, understand or do the lessons but also change their behavior and their manner expected from the set program. Learning can be optimized by the present of the teacher who makes the learning more effective, although learning could be done without it and could be achieve everywhere, anywhere, anytime. In contrary, teacher could not stand alone without its’ learners. 

As the explanation above, although the learners could learn anything and everywhere, it still needs a teacher to guide him, because the purpose of learning is not only the knowledge, but also behavior or manner. The teacher must be able to help the learning process happen and make it more effective. Therefore, teaching becomes ineffective when at the end of the class students have not achieved any learning.

REFERENCES
 
Harmer, Jeremy. 2001. The Practice of English Language Teaching. NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

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Akbar Fauzan

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